Face shapes

Happy new year!

Face shape is oft forgotten when hairstyles become trendy. The pixie cut, for example, flatters very few faces. I am not a hairstylist (I actually know next to nothing about hairstyles), but some general advice can be given. Let’s start, though, with the basic question: what face shape do you have?

The Rules

I like to keep this simple: long and short. I’m a lumper, not a splitter. The most typical descriptions are “oval” and “round” respectively. Other shapes have been defined by jawline and hairline, but they really are just variations on these two basic shapes.

  • You have an long face if your face is distinctly longer than it is wide. Variations include rectangular and oblong. You may have an “oval” face.
  • You have a short face if your face is roughly as long as it is wide – it ranges from literally round (like Ginnifer Goodwin) to more moderately short (like Scarlett Johanson). Variations include diamond, heart, and square. You may have a “petite” or “small” face.

Just pull your hair back in a ponytail; it should be evident to the naked eye, but measure if you must.

Styling the long face

Elizabeth Taylor

Elizabeth Taylor

The oval face is envied as the ideal face shape due to the “golden ratio” of proportions. Any shape of earring will flatter your face because you have both dimensions working in your favour. However, an earring that is not your specific face shape would be better – if your face is oval, opt for square earrings or triangular – we don’t want to echo your face shape. If your face is rectangular, opt for circular or oval earrings – your square jawline will be softened this way.

A hairstyle that adds width to your face is better than one that adds height – that would just echo the length of your face.  If your forehead is high, bangs can help to balance your face and your eyes. In my opinion a middle part flatters best because it maintains the balance.

Many famous women have long faces: Elizabeth Taylor, Kate Winslet, Grace Kelly, Jennifer Aniston, Heidi Klum, Angelina Jolie, Cher, Marissa Tomei, Gisele Bundchen, Rita Hayworth, Natalie Portman, Keira Knightly, and many others. Consider yourself in good company.

Styling the short face

Ingrid Bergman

Ingrid Bergman

I admit some bias towards this shape as I have a moderately short face. So sue me 😛 This section will be longer because we have more to contend with than long faces. Short faces tend to have fuller cheeks,  strong jawlines, small foreheads, and your mouth, eyes, nose, and cheeks all appear “scrunched together.” I’ve also noticed our noses tend to be longer and appear to extend further from the side, but that could just be me.

Two big clinchers regarding hairstyles: the part, and the cut. One: Wear a side part! Yes, I command you. I wore a middle part for years and I always hated my hairstyle; I moved it over and everything changed. I refuse to middle-part now. I wear a deep side-part in the style of Lauren Bacall.

Two: add height. Avoid any wide styles or side layers. You want to add height to your face because your face is small. My hair is long so most styles are difficult to impossible for me to easily implement, but I cheat by wearing heidi braids (Princess-Leia-Hoth style) or high headbands that mimic that style. It helps to bring out my cheekbones. Ironically, Carrie Fisher has a long face. Bangs can overpower your face. Long hair with curls below the chin can look fabulous.

Short faces are hidden beneath hair styles and cosmetics. Many women have this face shape, including the gorgeous Ingrid Bergman, Sofia Loren, Scarlett Johanson, Cameron Diaz, Ginnifer Goodwin, Kirsten Dunst, and Emma Stone.

 In sum…

Long faces achieve the golden ratio, so there is less work needed to flatter them. Short faces can easily appear wide so your hairstyles should always add height instead. Wear a side part on your best side to balance and add volume.

Hemlines, Waistlines, Necklines, and Stripes: The Importance of Lines

Ah, lines. Not the fine feathery friends soon to be (or in some cases, already) ensconced around our eyes. There is the familiar fashion rule that horizontal lines are slimming and vertical lines are widening. Why is that? Why do hemlines look most flattering when cut just above the knee? Why does the waistline matter to proportions?

Two ideas of note about lines

  • Lines divide our frames and where these divides occur are very important
  • Dense lines appear to narrow or thin, sparse lines widen or thicken

Horizontal and vertical stripes are prime suspects in optical illusions. Wide and narrow lines are runners up. Perhaps next to dots and large, obnoxious patterns, nothing else can add or subtract inches to your hips. Why do some horizontal stripes flatter, but  you never see vertical stripes of any width on trend?

I don’t know for sure, but the problem may lie in our body plan. Some creatures like starfish have a five-fold symmetry, others a radial symmetry like jellyfish, but humans (along with all other mammals, birds, fish, etc) have a bilateral symmetry (two identical halves) down our vertical axis (a line from head to toe). Perhaps vertical lines emphasize this symmetry and draw our eyes to the widest parts of our bodies. Horizontal lines may serve to counteract our natural vertical division.

How do we use lines to our advantage?

First, skirt hemlines: the new standard casual dress length is thirty-six inches which is well above the knees (my disdain for this obscenely short length is the topic of another post). This is unfortunately growing in popularity with both customers, for the sex factor, and designers, for the cost factor. Yes, you show some leg but the problem is that if you are an average-leg-length woman this hemline cuts you off  where your thighs are widening. The majority of my skirts hit just at the knee where the leg is slimmer.

Second, read about waistlines and it is easy to see where the location of a belt or shirt hemlines makes or breaks our outfit and aesthetic line. The belt breaks up your look and divides your bust from your hips.

Third, the interactions between jewellery and necklines. This is also involves the length of your neck and the size of your chest, but your neckline is another line domain. If you’re busty, “skin necklines” such as v-necks, scoops, princess, and similar necklines “break up” your chest. If you’re not as busty, high-necks are most flattering.

But we knew this. Only certain necklaces can be paired with certain necklines. I will elaborate later, but  necklaces should not mimic the neckline too closely, and often work best when countering the neckline. So low, skin necklines look best with short necklaces, wide necklines and high necklines look best with long necklaces. This all deals with countering the dominant line of the neckline.

For example: chokers are alluring with an open neck, but look stuffy with a crew neck. On the other hand a long necklace that drapes over a v-neck seems unneccessary because it mimics the neckline.

In summary

Lines can be cleverly used beyond avant-garde French designs to actually define our shapes without a lot of leg work. These simple two-dimensional objects should usually be used to counter each other instead of mimicking.

Balance and proportion

Appearing balanced is probably the most important concept regarding style, with colour theory a close second. Each woman has a unique body and face shape that can be successfully styled with the right pieces. By combining your proper colours with a flattering outfit, you have a solid foundation set towards looking amazing.

What is balance? It means to create a pleasing aesthetic to the eye. This ranges from wearing a higher waist on a long torso, to wearing square earrings on a round face (like your’s truly). Balancing is achieved through various ways, perhaps through colour, cinching your waist, hemlines, a coat, etc. This does not mean that certain “unflattering” items are completely off-limits, but those items are significantly harder to style in a way that flatters you.

The golden ratio

Golden Ratio, 1:1.6

This is the heart and foundation of a balanced look. This won’t come up often, but it is worth learning about because it is important to both mathematics and art. The golden ratio or rectangle relies on the rule of thirds. If you flip this rectangle, the pink region would be, for example, your forehead – it should occupy one third of the rectangle. For body shapes, the ideal arrangement is that the torso and above occupies roughly one third and the hips and legs the rest of the two thirds. Roughly.

This is considered a universally pleasing aesthetic that has influenced art for centuries. It actually serves to illustrate our natural desire for proportion better than anything else.

Why bother with balance? Can’t I wear whatever I want?

The answer is, yes, you can wear whatever you want. No one’s stopping you but one day you’ll get a glimpse of yourself in a glass window and you realize the error of your ways.

Our goal is to counter extremes to create a harmonious look. When buying clothes, always ask yourself the simple question: does this outfit emphasize my dominant area? It could be your legs, your bust, your shoulders, whatever.  You will know it when you see it. These aren’t problem areas or areas you should hide or be ashamed of, but instead look at as the “perfect area” that needs no extra attention – if you have fantastic legs, they will be noticed no matter what, if you dress well (hiding them behind yoga pants does you no favours). But you are not your legs only, and every part of your body is amazing – some areas just need more help than others.

Body shapes and Waist Length Guide

Everyone’s heard of the body shapes: pear, apple, hourglass, and rectangle. Knowing which of these four you fall into is a giant step toward maintaining balance and proportion. Confidence is not enough: you can’t fight what nature gave you. If you’re unsure where you fall or what they all mean, read on.

The basic body shapes

I’m a lumper, not a splitter, and unlike the current trend which creates up to twelve or fifteen body shapes, I believe every woman’s body is a variation on the core four shapes.

  • You are a pear if your hips/butt/thighs dominate, your waist is defined, your bust is smaller and your shoulders are narrower. You gain weight in your butt and you may be called “hippy.”
  • You are an apple if your bust dominates, your shoulders are broad, your waist in undefined, and your hips/butt/thighs are narrow. You gain weight in your mid-section and you may be called “busty.”
  • You are an hourglass if your bust and hips are equal measurements and you waist is at least nine inches smaller. Your shoulders may be broad and your thighs may be thicker (essentially you’re a pear and apple combined, with the waist). You gain weight everywhere. You may be called “curvy.”
  • You are a rectangle if your bust, waist, and hips are all fairly streamlined with no significant differences in measurements. You may be called “skinny.”

The best technique is to create a stripped down silhouette of your shape, or your favourite celebrity’s shape, and your eye will instinctively be drawn to your dominant region. That is how I determined the celebrity twins for the shapes.

Note: If you have breast implants, refer to your natural shape because this will determine your weight gain, which governs your body shape.

Scale of body shapes.

Scale of body shapes.

Easy, right? It all comes down to a combination of skeletal structure and distribution of fat cells. Picture each body shape as a justice scale, one scale marked “bust” and the other marked “hips.” The pear has more weights on the hips scale, and the apple has more weights on the bust scale (the hourglass shape is considered “balanced” with equal weights on both scales). When an apple wears a billowy, unfitted blouse with skinny jeans, she adds more weights to the bust scale and nothing to the hips scale. In reality, she should add weights to the hips scale to achieve balance.

Dressing the body shapes

Pears

Pear shapeThis the most common shape for women. You may have a chest, but it won’t compete with your hips.

Yay’s

Anything that brings attention to your top is great. You can do ruffles, sequins, cowls, bright colours, multi-colours, shoulder-pads, flowing fabrics, patterns, you name it. Necklines include boatnecks, round-necks, high-necks, turtlenecks. Narrow shoulders are feminine, so sheers and cuts that highlight them.

Your waist is defined, so show it off! Belts are your best friends.

For pants, think of any pant leg style that balances out your hips: flare, bootcut, straight, along those lines.

Dresses that wrap or hug your figure, particularly if the embellishments are above your hips.

Coats should be nipped at the waist and should hit past your hips, closer to your knees.

Wear pants that fit both your waist and your hips. A defined waist means defined hips.

Bring up your waist by dividing your outfit above your hip line.

Drapey dresses and belts bring the eye to your hips.

Nay’s

Any necklines that emphaize your narrow torso and smaller bust: v-necks are especially problematic. With wider hips, pointing out your narrow top can call to mind a bowling pin – great for bowling balls, not so great for looking balanced.

Loose, un-fitted tops that hide your waist. Coats that hit at the hips or above.

Full skirts or dresses that are too short so that they just emphasize your butt instead of your butt filling out the skirt.

The skinny leg and the peplum skirt. These perennial trends draw attention your hips in a very bad way.

Celebrity twins: Beyonce, Tina Fey, Jennifer Lopez, Katie Holmes, Sandra Bullock, Christina Aguilera, Kate Middleton, Taylor Swift, Kate Winslet.

Apples

Apple shape

Your waist may be slightly defined but your large bust and narrow hips are very dominant.

Yay’s

Open up that bust! Operative word here is “open.” A vertical neckline will pull your shoulders in, making them appear more feminine and sloped, and minimize your lack of waist. V-necks, square necks, sweethearts, you name it. If it shows skin and hints at cleavage, wear it. Don’t let cleavage go too low – no matter what you wear, your bust stands out so hinting is better than being blatant. Love higher necklines? Keep them tight and use colour patterns to break up the shirt.

Billowy, straight-leg pants will minimize  your narrow hips and balance out your top.

Full skirts and flared skirts that hit at the knee give the illusion of hips. Dresses with embellishments on the lower half will draw the eye downward.

Nay’s

You’re the opposite of the pear. Avoid anything that draws attention to your top: sequins, ruffles, structure, bold prints, etc.

Figure-skimming skirts and skinny leg pants will just emphasize your narrow hips and bring out your wide torso.

Avoid belts of any width.

Celebrity twins: Angelina Jolie, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Jessica Simpson.

Hourglasses

Hourglass shape

I’m pretty strict about who in Hollywood is an hourglass. It’s all about your fat, so hourglasses should be soft and curved and the waist should be obvious. The typical athletic routine is a death sentence to the hourglass, and it is the shape most susceptible to being ruined by core strengthening exercises because these bulk up the waist and weight lifting bulks up the already-broad shoulders and arms.

Yay’s

The key is to balance both top and bottom. Your narrow waist ties together your bust and hips. If you do nothing else, cinch your waist. Observe the chosen figure to the left.

Your big bust needs to be broken apart with open and preferably vertical necklines: v-necks, square necks, round necks, etc. Boatnecks can work as well if your shoulders aren’t terribly broad.

Your hips are dominant as well so wear wide-leg pants that echo your curves.

Pencil skirts and fit-and-flare skirts (fitted at the hips and a flared hem) were made for your type. Pencil skirts highlight your awesome thighs and flare skirts echo your waist and hips.

Nay’s

Great cleavage, a great waist and great legs can spell disaster if all are emphasized together. Too tight, too much cleavage, and too short bring you into an undignified territory that should be avoided.

Your shoulders tend to be broad and your thighs are thicker, so especially avoid structured tops and short skirts.

Unfitted waists – this is the most serious mistake any hourglass can make. Frump, frump, frump!

Again, the skinny leg pant. That pant leg is the worst pant leg I could wear, total disaster.

Belts can be problematic for a short-waisted hourglass, though if it is very skinny and a matching colour to your outfit it will cinch in your clothes without emphasizing your bigger bust.

Celebrity twins: Scarlett Johansson, Sofia Vergara, Sophia Loren, Salma Hayek (hey, all of their names start with S).

Rectangles

Rectangle shapeThe boyish/skinny/athletic/scrawny/ruler/boxy figure – so your chest is small, your waist is fairly straight and your hips are narrow. Don’t be dismayed! You have the ideal figure for wearing clothes that give the illusion of a shape – it’s like a clean canvas. You have to work the hardest but you can wear (almost) anything – you really only obey two rules.

Make sure you’re not just a skinny pear.

Yay’s

Tops: Flowing, flouncy, soft fabrics. Ruffles, sequins, anything curved and soft and anything that draws attention to your upper torso and shoulder areas.

Create a waist by belting a loose dress.

Flared pants will give you curves. Skinny jeans can look good on you if you’re tall!

Focus on full skirts, loose dresses, anything that gives you curves and doesn’t emphasize your straight lines.

Nay’s

Structured clothes, box shirts, shoulder pads.

Horizontal necklines highlight your broad shoulders, but a plunging neckline will highlight your small chest. Avoid both.

Celebrity twins: Cameron Diaz, Gwyneth Paltrow.

Torso length and waist length

An area that I have only recently begun learning about, but it has helped my style tremendously and I have solved a few dilemmas and mysteries surrounding why certain waistlines were downright unflattering. To begin, torso length is determined by measuring from the base of your neck to the top of your hip bones – standing straight, the measuring tape straight and taut. You can have either a short torso (like me) or a long torso (like my mother).

Short torsos are seventeen inches and shorter, and long torsos are, obviously, eighteen inches and longer. The primary problem a long torso will run into is that waistlines on skirts sit too high.

Then there is waist length. Standing straight, how many fingers can fit between your lowest rib and the top of your hip bones?

  • If you can fit less than three, you are short-waisted.
  • A hand is a balanced waist, and more than a hand is long-waisted.
  • The four body shapes tend to favour a certain waist length, and so this can indirectly confirm your body shape as well. Pears tend to be long-waisted, hourglasses tend to be short-waisted, and apples fall in the middle (I think…).

Where you break up your outfit is key to balancing waist length: your natural waist is usually not the best place to put your belt, pant or skirt waistline. Find the most proportional waistline height and use that. Measure that waist measurement and always keep it in mind when shopping. Your waistline might grow or shrink, but that proportion should stay the same.

Leg length is not as important in my book, because I think it partially determines your height, and height has little influence over proportion. Even a petite woman obeys the waist length rules, but she’s shrunken.

Short-waist tips

If wearing pants/skirt and a top that is tucked in, break it up slightly below your naval – give your bust some room.

If not tucking in your shirt, wear a shirt where the hemline falls naturally just below your naval.

Don’t belt if you can help it, and avoid dresses that have elastic waistbands.

Wear a slightly-structured blazer that hangs just below your naval.

Long-waist tips

A low-rise skinny jean on a long-waisted woman can emphasize her shorter legs and long torso. I once saw a waitress with a distinctly long torso and short legs; she wore petite skinny low-rise jeans – she was all torso and her legs looked like stumps.

Break your outfit apart closer to the natural “pinch” in your waist – high waist skirts can work wonders on  you.

Wear bolero jackets, short cardigans, and long necklaces that hang where you want to split your figure.

Belts are your best friend as you have lots of torso to cover.

In summary…

First determine your body shape, and then your length of waist. These combined give you a powerful, finely-tuned tool to help you wear the most flattering clothes possible.